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Tolerance is the allowed diversion/variation from a specific dimension. It defines the acceptable variation between the maximum and minimum limits. For example, if an ideal part is to be 10mm with a tolerance of ± 1mm, any part that falls between 9 and 11 mm will be acceptable. PCB manufacturing tolerances with respect to material thickness, copper thickness, drilling, plating, and solder masks play an important role in the fabrication process. Maintaining these tolerances will ensure that your circuit boards are manufactured precisely.

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Bow and twist are flatness-based criteria that determine alignment problems in a circuit board.

bow-in-pcb-surface.jpg
Bow observed on a PCB surface

Bow is the deviation from flatness of a circuit board. It is a cylindrical/spherical curve on a rectangular plane surface as shown in the image above.

twist-seen-on-a-pcb-surface.jpg
Twist seen on a PCB surface

Twist is the deformation of a rectangular circuit board causing one of the sheets’ corners to be off the plane containing the other three corners.

For non-rectangular boards, bow and twist can be measured by placing a rectangle over the PCB that is being tested. The imaginary rectangle’s dimensions should be the minimum that completely encloses the specimen.

IPC 2422-1 and 2422-2 define the maximum bow and twist on circuit boards as:

FeaturesTolerance
Maximum bow and twist for boards with SMD0.75%
Maximum bow and twist for boards without SMD1.5%

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The thickness primarily depends on factors such as copper thickness, materials used, number of layers, and the operating environment. The standard PCB thicknesses are 31 mils, 62 mils, 93 mils, and 125 mils.

Acceptable tolerances for board thickness

ThicknessTolerance
Boards with thickness 31 mils and above± 10%
Boards with thickness less than 31 mils± 0.003”

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The drilling process is the basis for vias and layer interconnections. A design engineer must always look into the board manufacturers’ capabilities and tolerances before placing an order.

The below table summarizes the drilling tolerances followed at Sierra Circuits

FeaturesTolerance
Drill diameter tolerance for PTH and NPTH drills±3 mils (0.003”)
Drill to copperMinimum 8 mils (0.008”)
Tolerance in location/registration of the drilled hole1 mil (0.001")
Drill (hole) to drill (hole)6 mils (0.006")
Drill (hole) to board edge6 mils (0.006")
Annular ring tolerancesWill be specified by the designer
Laser hole location tolerances5 mils (0.005”)

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Product featuresRouted part size tolerance
Standard5 mils (0.005”)
Advanced3 mils (0.003”)
Micro3 mils (0.003”)
Product featuresLaser routed part size tolerance ( can only be done with panels < .032” thick)
Standard2 mils (0.002”)
Advanced2 mils (0.002”)
Micro2 mils (0.002”)

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To achieve undistorted signal propagation through traces, a uniform controlled impedance is a must to minimize signal reflections, hence distortion.

Controlled impedance tolerances at Sierra Circuits:

Product featuresControlled impedance tolerance
Standard10%
Advanced5%
Micro5%

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Product features
Solder mask feature tolerance
Standard1.5 mils (0.0015”)
Advanced1 mil (0.001”)
Micro1 mil (0.001”)

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Sierra Circuits is
headquartered in Silicon Valley.
We welcome visitors at
our 70,000 sqft facility,
located at 1108 West Evelyn Avenue
in Sunnyvale, California.
Book a tour with an account manager today!
Let us introduce you to one of the most innovative communities of engineers and designers in the world.
We can help you plan your project from design to assembled board.

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Our 70,000 sqft state-of-the-art campus in the heart of Silicon Valley contains the most advanced equipment required for the manufacture and assembly of your PCBs. Whether you’re looking for standard quick turn PCBs or boards with the tightest tolerances, made from exotic metals, there’s a reason Sierra Circuits leads the industry in quality and performance.

PCBs manufactured and assembled in the United States

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Sierra Circuits can manufacture your PCB and have it expedited to you within 24 hours.

Full turnkey boards, with assembly and components in as fast as 5 days.


Get an Instant, Itemized Quote

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24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Call us: +1 (800) 763-7503
Email us: through our Customer Care form

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